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Saturday, July 13, 2024

Understanding the Enforcement Directorate: A Political Tool or an Anti-Crime Crusader?

In recent times, the Enforcement Directorate (ED) has come under scrutiny and accusations of being a political tool in the hands of the Union government. A series of raids and arrests targeting opposition leaders have raised questions about its impartiality. In this article, we will delve into the evolution and role of the ED, analyze the numbers behind its actions, and explore whether these accusations hold any truth.

The Evolution of the Enforcement Directorate

The Enforcement Directorate, originally known as the enforcement unit, was established in 1956. Its primary focus was to handle cases related to the violation of foreign exchange laws. Over the years, its responsibilities expanded, and it transformed into a multi-disciplinary organization mandated to investigate economic crimes, foreign exchange law violations, and money laundering. Currently, the ED operates under the administrative control of the Department of Revenue.

ED as a Political Tool: The Numbers Speak

The accusations against the ED being used as a political tool gain momentum when we examine the data. Between 2014 and 2022, under the Modi government, the ED conducted over 3000 raids, a significant surge compared to the 112 raids during the UPA regime between 2004 and 2014. Notably, 95 percent of politicians facing ED action belonged to the opposition parties. This raises concerns about the agency’s objectivity and its perceived targeting of opposition leaders.

However, past governments have also utilized the ED as a political tool, albeit to a lesser extent. Under the UPA regime, 54 percent of opposition leaders faced ED probes. The ED’s use for political gains isn’t unique to any particular government.

Influence and Power of the Enforcement Directorate

The ED wields immense power due to the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA), which empowers it to investigate a broad range of offenses. Several factors set the ED apart from other agencies:

  1. Autonomous Probing: Unlike the CBI, the ED can initiate an investigation without the consent of the state government.
  2. Expanded Scope: The PMLA allows the ED to probe offenses ranging from terrorism and narcotics trafficking to copyright infringement and wildlife crimes.
  3. Difficult Bail: Offenses under the PMLA are non-bailable, making it challenging for accused individuals to obtain bail.
  4. Admissible Statements: Statements made by an accused during an ED probe are admissible in court as evidence.
  5. Presumed Guilty: The PMLA flips the principle of “innocent until proven guilty,” placing the burden of proof on the accused.
  6. Limited Information: During the initial stages of investigation or a raid, the ED is not obligated to inform the accused of the specific charges against them.
  7. Power to Attach Property: The ED can seize property and assets believed to be connected to the offense, even before charges are filed.

A Double-Edged Sword

The ED’s expanded powers have made it a potent tool to combat economic crimes. However, these very powers have also raised concerns about its potential misuse for political gains. Opposition leaders who have defected to the ruling party appear to have experienced a softening of ED action against them, reinforcing the perception of its bias.


While the ED undoubtedly plays a crucial role in fighting economic crimes, the data and circumstances suggest that it has been selectively utilized against political opponents. The agency’s autonomy and far-reaching powers make it a force to be reckoned with, raising the stakes in the political landscape. Striking the right balance between its anti-crime role and political impartiality remains a challenge. In a democracy, it is vital to ensure that investigative agencies act solely in the interest of justice and not as tools to settle political scores.

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